Loving Kindness Meditation

Loving kindness meditation, also known as metta meditation, is a Buddhist practice. It helps people cultivate love, kindness, and compassion for themselves and others. It is the first of four practices taught by the Buddha. The purpose is to cultivate positive emotions.

LKM originated in ancient Buddhist traditions, particularly in India and Southeast Asia. It originates from Buddhism and describes a mental state of unselfish and unconditional kindness to all beings. Metta, or loving-kindness, is a positive state of mind, along with compassion, joy, and equanimity.

What is Loving Kindness Meditation?

Loving kindness meditation (LKM) is the English translation of “metta bhavana,” the first of the Four Brahma Vihara meditation practices taught by the Buddha to cultivate positive emotions. Metta (loving-kindness) is one of the four brahma-viharas or “sublime states,” along with karuna (compassion), mudita (appreciative joy), and upekka (equanimity).

History of Loving Kindness Meditation

The historical background that led the Buddha to expound the Karaniya Metta Sutta is explained in the commentary written by Acariya Buddhaghosa, who received it from an unbroken line of elders going back to the days of the Buddha himself.

It is said that five hundred monks received instructions from the Buddha in the particular techniques of meditation suitable to their temperaments. They then went to the foothills of the Himalayas to spend the four months of the rains’ retreat by living a life of withdrawal and intensive meditation.

As the monks neared their forest dwellings reciting the Metta Sutta, thinking and meditating on the underlying meaning, the hearts of the deities became so charged with warm feelings of goodwill that they materialized themselves in human form and received the monks with great piety. By the end of the rainy season, all five hundred monks had attained arahantship, which is the power intrinsic to the Metta Sutta.

Philosophical Foundations of Loving Kindness Meditation

Loving-kindness and compassion are closely linked to the Buddhist notion that all living beings are inextricably connected. Together with loving-kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy, and equanimity constitute the four brahma-viharas, regarded as the four sublime states that can be cultivated.

Each of these positive meditation practices provides the foundation for the next. For example, we need to generate loving-kindness to cultivate compassion, and we need both loving-kindness and compassion practices to cultivate the appreciative joy that celebrates others’ talents and success.

Buddha prescribed these three practices as a method for transforming their opposing emotional states – loving-kindness overcomes hatred, compassion overcomes cruelty, and appreciative joy overcomes envy. When combined, a state of serenity called equanimity is eventually attained, which is the emotional foundation of freedom from suffering.

Core Principles of Loving Kindness Meditation

Loving-kindness meditation involves sending positive feelings towards oneself, loved ones, strangers, and even difficult people or situations. It teaches how to be kind and loving to yourself and others.

The process begins with small steps and gradually grows to encompass all living beings in the universe. People often translate Metta as “universal friendliness” to demonstrate that they give affection without expecting anything in return.

Modern Interpretation of Loving Kindness Meditation

While rooted in Buddhist philosophy, loving-kindness meditation has been interpreted and practiced in various modern contexts. It is seen as a practice designed to uncover boundless, unconditional love for oneself and all beings, transcending boundaries and distinctions.

Loving-kindness is understood as an active benevolence, a genuine and visceral well-wishing for the happiness and welfare of all, not just “the good ones” or those nearby.

In modern interpretations, self-love is seen as intrinsic to loving-kindness, not as a separate step or obligation. Loving-kindness meditation is viewed as a means of connecting with the innate goodness and natural state of love within oneself, which then radiates outward to all beings. It is a practice of coming into openness and trust rather than adding something new.

How to Practice Loving Kindness Meditation?

To practice loving-kindness meditation, try the following steps:

Fundamental Steps for Loving Kindness Meditation

Various methods exist for practicing metta meditation (also known as loving-kindness meditation), each rooted in diverse Buddhist customs, but all variations employ the same central psychological process. During your meditation session, you cultivate benevolent thoughts towards specific subjects, including yourself and others.

A simple and effective loving-kindness meditation technique to try is as follows:

  • Allocate some peaceful moments for yourself (even a short duration is fine) and sit in a comfortable position. Shut your eyes, loosen your muscles, and take several deep breaths.
  • Imagine yourself experiencing total physical and emotional health and inner tranquility. Picture feeling absolute love for yourself, expressing gratitude for your existence, and acknowledging that you are perfect just the way you are. Concentrate on this sensation of inner calm, and visualize that you are exhaling stress and inhaling feelings of love.
  • Recite three or four positive, comforting sentences to yourself. The following are examples, but you can also formulate your own:
    “May I experience happiness”,
    “May I be secure”,
    “May I be healthy, serene, and robust”,
    “May I express and receive gratitude today.”
  • Subsequently, immerse yourself in feelings of warmth and self-love for a few moments. If your mind wanders, gently guide it back to these sensations of loving-kindness. Allow these feelings to surround you.

Typical Methods for Loving Kindness Meditation

  • You have the option to maintain this concentration throughout your meditation or gradually shift your attention to the cherished ones in your life. Start with someone you have a deep bond with, like a partner, a child, a parent, or a best friend. Experience your appreciation and affection for them. Remain with that sensation. You might want to recite comforting phrases.
  • After you have sustained these emotions for that individual, introduce other significant people from your life into your consciousness, one after another, and visualize them with optimal health and inner tranquility. Then expand to other friends, family members, neighbors, and contacts. You might even want to encompass groups of people worldwide.
  • Project feelings of loving kindness to individuals across the world and concentrate on a sense of unity and empathy. You might even want to incorporate those you have disagreements with to aid in achieving forgiveness or enhanced tranquility.
  • When you sense that your meditation is finished, open your eyes. Keep in mind that you can revisit the delightful emotions you cultivated throughout the day. Absorb how loving kindness meditation feels, and revisit those sensations by adjusting your focus and taking several deep breaths.

Advanced Techniques of Loving Kindness Meditation

  • Start your journey into loving-kindness meditation by focusing solely on yourself. As you become more adept at visualizing and repeating loving phrases, gradually incorporate others into your meditation.
  • Eventually, extend your loving-kindness meditation to include challenging individuals in your life. This final aspect of LKM enhances feelings of forgiveness and aids in releasing persistent thoughts, leading to a heightened sense of inner tranquility. If you are worried about dedicating too much time to meditation, consider setting a timer with a soft alarm as you establish a regular practice.

Finally, bear in mind that there are numerous ways to practice this meditation. The technique described above is merely a suggestion for getting started. You might devise your own loving-kindness meditation method that suits you better. As long as your focus fosters feelings of loving-kindness, you can anticipate reaping the rewards of this practice.

Loving Kindness Meditation Script

Loving-Kindness Meditation scripts are structured guides that facilitate the practice of sending compassion and goodwill to oneself and others. These scripts typically follow a sequence of steps, beginning with the practitioner finding a comfortable, quiet place to sit or lie down. The meditator is then guided to close their eyes, take deep breaths, and relax the body.

The script usually starts with cultivating loving-kindness towards oneself. This involves repeating positive phrases for themselves. The practitioner is encouraged to genuinely feel these wishes and direct them inward.

Next, the script guides the meditator to extend these feelings towards others, starting with a loved one. This process is then extended to neutral people, such as acquaintances, and even to those with whom the practitioner has conflicts, promoting forgiveness and empathy.

Finally, the script broadens to encompass all living beings, sending out feelings of universal love and kindness. The practice concludes with a period of reflection, allowing the practitioner to absorb the positive emotions generated during the meditation. LKM scripts are powerful tools for fostering compassion, emotional resilience, and a sense of interconnectedness with others.

Loving Kindness Meditation Phrases

You can use phrases like:

  • May I be safe;
  • May I be happy;
  • May I be healthy;
  • May I live in peace, no matter what I am given;
  • May my heart be filled with love and kindness;
  • May I be at ease; May I be free from struggle.

Then extend these wishes to loved ones, difficult people, and the broader community. Notice the feelings and sensations that arise within you as you practice.

Loving Kindness Meditation Benefits

Loving-kindness meditation benefits include increased compassion, reduced stress and anxiety, enhanced emotional resilience, improved relationships, and greater overall well-being.

Loving Kindness Meditation Promotes Mental Wellbeing

Research has shown that loving-kindness meditation significantly benefits mental well-being. A study found that practicing loving-kindness meditation daily for seven weeks increased happiness and life satisfaction.

Loving Kindness Meditation Improves Physical Health

LKM can also positively impact physical health. A pilot trial indicated that LKM reduced pain, anger, and psychological distress in participants. Researchers believed that practicing LKM would make people feel happier every day, leading to better health and sleep.

Loving Kindness Meditation for Grief

Researchers have linked the practice of LKM to enhanced emotional resilience. A study discovered that women who had experienced trauma and completed a six-week meditation program showed reduced mental health symptoms. The program included two weeks of daily loving-kindness meditation for an hour.

Loving Kindness Meditation Cultivates Greater Compassion

One of the core benefits of LKM is its ability to cultivate greater compassion and social connectedness. Research suggests that regular LKM practice can lead to more positive automatic reactions toward others, more satisfying social interactions, and closer relationships. It can also reduce self-focus, which in turn lowers anxiety and depression. Research has shown that LKM increases feelings of connection with others, even strangers.

Psychological Benefits of Loving Kindness Meditation

Several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of loving-kindness meditation (LKM) in improving mental health and well-being. Neuroendocrine studies suggest that LKM may reduce stress-induced subjective distress and immune responses.

Neuroimaging investigations comparing expert and novice meditators indicate that LKM enhances the emotional and somatosensory brain representations of other people’s emotions.
The limited empirical evidence suggests that elements of LKM can be trained within a relatively short period. A study found that even a 7-minute training in LKM can produce improvements in positive feelings toward strangers and oneself.

Other studies with non-clinical populations involved 6 weekly 60-minute LKM sessions, with the meditation itself lasting 15-20 minutes, and reported modest positive effects.

In clinical studies, LKM training ranged from 8 weekly 1-hour sessions for chronic low back pain to 12 weekly 2-hour sessions for treating anxiety, anger, and mood problems, and 12 1-hour weekly sessions for treating paranoid symptoms in schizophrenia patients. These findings indicate that LKM can have positive effects on psychological functioning after a relatively short training period.

Real-Life Case Studies about Loving Kindness Meditation

Loving-kindness meditation has attracted interest due to its efficiency and long history of practice. A previous study proposed a model categorizing meditation practices into attention, constructive, and deconstructive groups, with constructive practices like LKM aimed at developing healthy relationships, positive values, and well-being.

Experienced LKM meditators can significantly change their brain activities, especially during compassion meditation. Neuroimaging studies have found increased activation in areas like the amygdala, temporoparietal junction, and posterior superior temporal sulcus during LKM in long-term practitioners, altering neural circuitries linked to empathy and theory of mind.

One case report revealed that compassion meditation induces a differential correlation between insula activity and cardiac function between novice and expert LKM meditators, highlighting the potential implications of LKM practice in daily life.

Participants reported feeling more joy, gratitude, hope, and love, and less depression. Israeli adults who attended LKM classes weekly and practiced daily experienced better mental health. They felt less self-critical and more self-compassionate and positive. A program with loving-kindness meditation made South Korean university students feel better about themselves and improved their mental health.

LKM can help individuals better regulate negative emotions, as seen in a study where Singaporean participants with borderline personality disorder showed reduced negative emotions and feelings of rejection after just 10 minutes of LKM.

Personal Testimonials of Loving Kindness Meditation

Personal accounts highlight the positive impacts of LKM on various aspects of life. One individual shared that before LKM, they only felt love when it arose naturally, but the practice allowed them to experience love daily, regardless of external circumstances. They found LKM to be an antidote to negative feelings, providing a sense of control over emotions and a boost to mental health.

Another person expressed that LKM reminds them of their connection to all beings on the planet, helping them get out of self-focus and engage their compassion and kindness, which is then reflected back toward themselves. They felt better about themselves when they were true to their kind and caring nature rather than aggressive and selfish.

One practitioner shared that LKM helped them reduce anger to almost nothing, enabling them to remain calm and preserve self-respect even in the face of rudeness or hurtful behavior from others.

They developed the habit of feeling compassion for those who hurt them, understanding that they were likely unhappy and suffering. Another individual expressed how wonderful it is to have loving-kindness towards everybody and all animals, noting that when they allow only loving-kindness into their minds, the world seems pure. They found that people open up and share their happiness and loving-kindness in return.

For someone who had been practicing awareness of breathing and concentration meditation for nine years, LKM helped strengthen their capacity for warmth toward themselves and others, as well as heal traumas and triggers.

They likened it to doing reps with weights at the gym, making their ability to turn on warmth stronger and more flexible, even in challenging situations. They learned not to expect to pick up from the last sitting or retreat, but to approach each practice with a beginner’s mind, curiosity, and interest.

Resources for Deeper Practice of Loving Kindness Meditation

For a deeper practice of loving-kindness meditation, consider these resources:


Various books guide loving-kindness meditation and its practice. Books provide a detailed account of what loving-kindness meditation is, and how it can help in cultivating and developing greater compassion, kindness, and love towards oneself and others.

Audio Resources

Loving-kindness meditation can be practiced with the guidance of audio resources, which provide step-by-step instructions and prompts for cultivating feelings of love and compassion. These audio resources often include a calm, soothing voice guiding the listener through the meditation, allowing them to fully immerse themselves in the practice without the need for visual aids or distractions.

These audio resources may also include gentle reminders to refocus the mind if it wanders, as well as closing remarks to help the listener transition out of the meditation.

Additionally, there are audio resources that provide shorter, bite-sized loving-kindness meditation sessions, which can be particularly useful for those with limited time or for incorporating the practice into their daily routine. These condensed audio resources often focus on specific aspects of the meditation, such as cultivating self-compassion or extending loving-kindness to others.

Video Tutorials

Video tutorials offer a visual component to guide individuals through the practice of loving-kindness meditation. These tutorials often feature experienced meditation teachers or practitioners who provide clear instructions and demonstrations, allowing viewers to follow along with the guided meditation.

One advantage of video tutorials is the ability to observe the teacher’s posture, breathing techniques, and facial expressions, which can be helpful for beginners or those seeking to refine their practice. Additionally, video tutorials may incorporate calming visuals or imagery, such as nature scenes or soothing animations, to enhance the meditation experience.

Some video tutorials may also include supplementary information or tips for practicing loving-kindness meditation, such as advice on finding a comfortable meditation position, managing distractions, or incorporating the practice into daily life. These additional resources can be particularly valuable for those seeking a deeper understanding of the practice or looking to overcome specific challenges.

Live Sessions

Live sessions offer a unique opportunity to practice loving-kindness meditation in a group setting, either in-person or through virtual platforms. These sessions are typically led by experienced meditation teachers or facilitators who guide participants through the practice in real time.

One of the benefits of live sessions is the sense of community and shared experience. Participants can draw inspiration and motivation from practicing alongside others, fostering a supportive and encouraging environment. Additionally, live sessions often include opportunities for discussion, Q&A sessions, or sharing of personal experiences, which can deepen one’s understanding and appreciation of the practice.

Live sessions may also incorporate additional elements, such as brief talks or teachings on the principles and benefits of loving-kindness meditation, or supplementary practices like mindfulness exercises or gentle movements. These additional components can help participants cultivate a more well-rounded and holistic approach to their meditation practice.

Daily Practice of Loving-Kindness Meditation

Loving-kindness meditation can be practiced daily to cultivate an attitude of love and kindness towards oneself and others.

Morning Routine

Practicing loving-kindness meditation in the morning can help set a positive tone for the day. It can be a great way to start the day with a sense of compassion and connection.

Evening Routine

An evening practice of loving-kindness meditation can promote restful sleep and self-reflection. After a long day, it can be beneficial to take a few moments to cultivate feelings of love and kindness towards oneself and others. This can help release any negative emotions or stress accumulated throughout the day, allowing for a more peaceful night’s rest.

Short Loving Kindness Meditation

In addition to formal meditation sessions, there are also on-the-go techniques that can be incorporated throughout the day to cultivate a sense of compassion and connection. For example, while walking or driving, one can silently repeat loving-kindness phrases, extending goodwill to others they encounter or visualize. This can help maintain a sense of kindness even during busy or stressful moments.

Research suggests that when people practice loving-kindness meditation regularly, they start automatically reacting more positively to others, and their social interactions and close relationships become more satisfying. Loving-kindness meditation can also reduce people’s focus on themselves, which can, in turn, lower symptoms of anxiety and depression.

Compassion and Loving Kindness Meditation

Compassion, or karuna, is the wish to alleviate the suffering of others. It is a key component of loving-kindness practice. Compassion meditation involves techniques to cultivate compassion, or deep, genuine sympathy for those stricken by misfortune, together with an earnest wish to ease this suffering.

Loving-kindness and compassion are often practiced together as part of a broader meditation practice aimed at cultivating positive emotions and a sense of connection with all beings.

Compassion can be likened to the feeling a loving mother has toward alleviating the suffering of her child in distress, but it is aimed at all beings. Loving-kindness and compassion are closely linked to the Buddhist notion that all living beings are inextricably connected.

Loving Kindness Meditation Vs Mindfulness

Loving-kindness meditation and Mindfulness are two distinct practices in the realm of meditation. LKM focuses on cultivating feelings of love and compassion towards oneself and others. It involves silently repeating phrases while visualizing specific individuals.

In contrast, Mindfulness centers on being present in the moment, observing thoughts and sensations without judgment. It emphasizes awareness and acceptance of the present experience.

While both practices aim to enhance well-being and reduce stress, LKM specifically nurtures empathy, whereas Mindfulness fosters an attentive state of mind.

FAQs About Loving Kindness Meditation

What are the five stages involved in practicing loving-kindness meditation?

Loving-kindness meditation is developed through five progressive stages:

  • For Yourself- Begin by directing love and kindness towards yourself.
  • For a Good Friend- Extend that love and kindness to a close friend.
  • For a Neutral Person- Direct your feelings towards someone you neither like nor dislike.
  • For a Difficult Person- Offer loving-kindness towards someone you have conflicts or difficulties with.
  • For All Sentient Beings- Finally, expand your compassion to include all living beings universally.

How much time is required for loving-kindness meditation to start showing effects?

Individuals who engage in loving-kindness meditation daily can begin to notice an increase in positive emotions such as joy, gratitude, contentment, hope, and love within seven weeks. These effects accumulate progressively with regular practice.

What are the key benefits of engaging in love and kindness meditation?

Loving-kindness meditation is particularly effective in diminishing self-critical thoughts and behaviors. It encourages a mental state where negative self-judgment is replaced with self-acceptance and kindness, which can significantly boost self-esteem over time.

What mantra is used in loving-kindness meditation, and how is it practiced?

The mantra typically used in loving-kindness meditation includes phrases like: “May I/you be healthy, well, at ease, light, happy, peaceful, strong, safe.” To practice, sit with your eyes closed and your back straight, focusing your attention on the heart area. You may place a hand over your heart to enhance focus. Begin by directing these phrases towards yourself, repeating them three times before moving on to others.


Virtual Psychiatrist
Fact Checked by
- Dr. Gundu Reddy
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